Pearson, D.A., Lachar, D., Loveland, K.A., Santos, C.W., Faria, L.P., Azzam, P.N., Hentges, B.A., & Cleveland, L.A. (in press). Patterns of behavioral adjustment and maladjustment in mental retardation: A comparison of children with and without ADHD. American Journal on Mental Retardation.
A variety of behavioral and emotional problems have been associated with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) in children of average intellect. In contrast, little is known about concomitant behavioral and emotional problems in children with ADHD and Mental Retardation (MR). In this study, behavioral adjustment of 48 children with MR and ADHD was compared to that of 47 children with MR without ADHD, using the Personality Inventory for Children-Revised (PIC-R). The ADHD group had significantly more symptoms of depression, family conflict, noncompliance, anxiety, hyperactivity, inadequate social skills, and academic problems. These results are strongly suggestive of significant behavioral and emotional problems in children with ADHD and MR, thus mirroring the pattern associated with ADHD in the general school-age population.